Hapki has been used as moral training for the person in authority in tribal ages. As time passed, it had changed into a military art little by little.
When there were three-nations on the Korean peninsula, Hap-ki had been developed differently by each of the three-nations: “Ko-Koo-Ryeo”, “Baek-Jae” and “Sil-La".
“Ko-Koo-Ryeo” had pursued a strong nation with a strong, knight-hooded army. They located their nation in the North mountain area, so, they developed strong methods like hitting, piercing, kicking, and, especially, 'Soo-bak',(an empty handed technique) is expressive of this. It expressed the special quality of the North based on strong power.
“Baek-Jae” had a universal conscription system. They had strengthened their military and developed that ethos with 'Sam-rang-do'.
Baek-jae had some techniques named 'Soo-byeok-ta,' because it used hands just like brandishing swords. It gathers the energy of our body into the lower abdomen and uses the energy freely and easily. They confronted their opponent by a circle's smooth movement and flow. The kicking was used with hands together mainly, attacking the lower part of the chest.
They looked like attacking opponent's middle or low part mainly.
The "Soo-Byeok" has recorded as a brief and essential technique mainly for actual fighting. “Sil-La" was a country believing in Buddhism. They redeemed their people with religion, especially, the spirit of warriors named 'Hwa-rang-do,' who became the driving force of unification.Especially, they had an effect on the Japanese court's military arts subject to Baek-jae, For example, according to 'IlBonSeoKi(the history book of Japan)', 「Japanese invited The 'Dae-jwa-pyeong(the premier of Baek-jae)' and competed with their warriors」. We can find out that Baek-jae taught their 'empty handed military art' to the Japanese as an advanced culture.
'Hwa-rang' was a right model warrior of 'Choong(patriotism)', 'Hyo(filial piety)', and 'Ye(being right)' ground. The techniques that they used were 'Soo-bak(empty handed technique)', and 'Kyeok-Keom(the fighting of sword)'.
The 'Soo-bak' was high level-developed and systematic martial-art. It was prosperous for not only high rank people but also general people. It was used by low-ranked persons for becoming persons of high standing.
In the age of "Jo-Seon", according to Jo-seon dynasty's history, 'Soo-bak' was a part of the army examination.
'Soo-bak' was also prosperous in Jo-seon, it was for defending against a foreign enemy as well as the famous competition of the general public.
It was also classified 'Tak-kyun(of kick technique)', and 'Soo-bak(of hand technique)'.
In the age of "Unificated Sil-La", the three nations martial-arts had harmonized, The strong 'Ko-Koo-Ryeo', the actual fighting style of 'Baek-Jae', smooth and mental techniques of 'Sil-La'. These three nations' techniques had harmonized and developed peculiarly. From then, 'Soo-bak' was prevalent.
'Soo-bak' means catching or hitting something with empty hand. It became the root of all of Korean martial arts.
These days, the name 'Soo-bak' has became extinct, and there has appeared 'Tak-kyeon' and 'Hapkisool'.
This name 'Hap-Ki-Sool' has changed into 'Hapkido', these techniques have became more systematic so far. It has been known not only in Korea, but also overseas countries. It has taken its place in various countries.
In the age of "Ko-Ryeo", 'Soo-bak' was prosperous all over the country, and was the most prosperous age all over the Korean history.